ATATÜRK'ÜN HAYATI - 2 -

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ATATÜRK'ÜN HAYATI - 2 -
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Gelibolu, Conkbayırı, Çanakkale. Otherwise today you would be saluting to English and French officers. Turkish soldier will reveal in a short time what he is and you are." One of the multi star general's who do not know Mustafa Kemal asks to one of the general nearby to him -Who is this ? -MUSTAFA KEMAL PASHA. Mustafa Kemal immediately lefts Istanbul and after a very troubled trip arrives to Syrian front. Ismet(Inönü) bey and Ali Fuat(Cebesoy) were also here. In order to gain victory these three big commander performed a superhuman action with Turkish soldiers at Syrian front in Damascus, Saria Valley , Aleppo, Riyad. But this time enemy was not consist of only English and French troops. So called Mohammedan Arab sheiks and amir's were joined to Allien forces. The amir of Hicaz was thristy for Turkish blood. Turkish army was surrounded from all directions and forces to retreat. IV th Army was surrended and complately dispersed. But still, the Army under command of Mustafa Kemal retreated till today's Syrian border on dates of 25/26 October 1918 without suffering from important losses. The war was almost over. Ottoman Empire signed Armistice of Mondros with severe terms, on 30 October 1918. Same day, Mustafa Kemal took over the command of Thunderbolt Armies Group from Liman Von Sanders at Adana. The mondros armistice signed by Rauf(Orbay) bey, on 30 October 1918 was a document of shame and Disgrace. With this document, statement of reasons had been prepared to submit Anatolia which is under Turkish regin for hundred years, to French, English, Italians and Greks. Also, this armistice, caused Mustafa Kemal's born like a sun from Samsun to asve his country and nation. As a man who do not run by conditions but shapes the conditions Mustafa Kemal will never accept this armistise which is full of unclear statements. After defeat of Ottoman Empire, and execuation of Mondros armistise, various minorities inside the Ottoman soil raised against empire. The people consistof Christans and Islams living together since hundred years peasefully became enemies of each other. The Pontus Greeks settled in Karadeniz region began to action to establish their state which demolished by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. They organised rebel groups and began to attack Turkish villages threating Turkish residents life and possession. While the fact was this, the high comission of English army was telling that the life of Christans are under threat in Karadeniz region and troops may sent and region should be invaded. To investigate the English accusations it was decided to send person there in order to investigate how true are English allegations and take counter measures. For this duty, MUstafa Kemal Pasha sent to SAMSUN as IX th army inspector whose political past was clear and not involved with "Ittihat" movement. While passing from Haydarpasa to across side when he arrived to Istanbul on 13 November 1918 his ship have to pass through Allied forces navy, and told his aide-de-camp Cevat Abbas "They'll go back like the way they came" and while he is in Istanbul, performed every possible effort to put this idea into live. But, while time passes, he saw that there was no way to save country from Istanbul. He was searchin the chances step to Anatolia. When duty of IX Army Inspector offered to him, did not hesitate. 16 May 1919 day, when he landed Samsun on 19 May 1919 in twillight the plan of how his Nation will be liberated was ready in his mind. While advancing on waters of Bosphours on board worn out Bandırma vessel with few of his patriotic friends Mustafa Kemal quoted while he was looking with sorrow to the enemy warships directed their guns to Dolmabahce place. "THAT IS IT, THEY ONLY LEAN TO POWER OF WEAPON, STEEL AND IRON. THE ONLY THING THEY KNOW IS MATERIAL. THEY CAN NOT UNDERSTAND THE POWER OF ONES WHO ARE DETERMINED TO DIE FOR LIBERTY. WE ARE NOT CARRYING TO ANATOLIA NEITHER WEAPON NOR AMMUNITON. WE ARE CARRYING IDEAL AND FAITH." LANDING TO SAMSUN Mustafa Kemal Pasha who stopped on hazy morning of 19 May 1919 at 7:00 passes his comments relevant to that date in "Speech" as follows; I landed at Samsun on the 19 May 1919. this was the situation. "The group of Powers which included the Ottman Government had been defated. The Ottaman Army had been crushed on every front. An Armistice had been signed under severe conditions. The prolongation of the Great War had left the people exhausted and impoverished. Those who had driven the people and the country into the World War had fied and now cared for nothing but their own safety. Vahdettin, the degenerate occupant of the throne and the Caliphate, was seeking for some despicable way to save his person and his throne, the only objects of his anxiety. The cabinet of which Damat Ferit Pasha was the head, was weak and lacked dignity and courage. It was subservient to the will of the Sultan alone and agreed to every proposal that could protect its members and their sovereing. The army had been deprived of their arms and ammuition, and this state of affairs continued. The Entente Powers did not condiser it necessary to recpect the terms of the armistice. On various pretexts, their meof-war and troops remained at Istanbul. The Vilayet of Adana was occupied by the French, Urfa, Maraş, Antep by the English. In Antalya and Konya were the Itallians, whilst at Merzifon and Samsun were English troops. Foreign officiers and officials and their special agents were very active every where. At last, on the 14th May, that is to say, four days before the following account of events begins, the Greek Army, with the consent of the Entente Powers had landed at IZMIR. Christian elements were also at work all over the country, either openly or in secret trying to realize their own particular ambitions and therebly hasten the breakdown of the State. Mustafa Kemal was contuining in his speech quoting. Morally and materially, the enemy Powers were openly attacking the Ottoman Empire and the country itself. they were determined to disintegrate and annihilite both. The Padisah-Caliph had one sole anxiety-namely to save his own life and comfort. The members of the government had the same feeling. Without being aware of it, the nation had no longer any one to lead it, but lived in darkness and uncertainly, waiting to see what would happen. Those who began undestand clearly the terrors and extent of the catastrophe were seeking some means wherebly to save the country, each guided by the circumstances that surrounded him and the sentiments that inspired him. The Army existed merely in name. The Commanders and other officers were still suffering from the exhaustion resulting from the war. Their hearts were bleeding on account of the threatened dismemberment of their country. Standing on the brink of the dark abyss which gawned before their eyes, they racked their brains to discover a way out of the danger. Here I must add and explain a very important point. The Nation nd the Army had no suspicion at all of the Padisah-Caliph's treachery. On the Contrary, on account of religious and traditional ties handed down for centuries they remained loyal to the throne and it's occupant. Seeking for means of salvation under the influence of this tradition, the security of the Caliphate and Sultanate concerned them far more than their own safety. That the country could possibly be saved without a Caliph and without a Padisah was an idea too impossible for them to comprehend. And woe to those who ventured to think otherwise! They would immediately have been loked down upon as men without faith and without patriotism and such would hab,ve been scorned. I must mention another point here. In seeking ways to save the situation it was considered to be specially important to avoid irritating the Great Powers-England, France and Italy. The idea that it was impossible to fight even one these Powers had taken root in the mind of nearly everbody. Consuquently, to think of doing so and thus bring on another war after the Ottoman Empire, all-powerful Germany and Austria-Hungary together had been defeated and crushed would have been looked upon as sheer madness. Not only the mass of the people thought in his strain, but those also who must be regarded as their chosen leaders shared the same opinion. Therefore, two basis would not be in consideration while seaching a path for salvation, first will be no hostile attitude agains allied forces and second to be royal to Padisah and caliphate diligently will be a basic term. Now, Gentlemen I will ask ask you what desicion could have been arrived, at under such circumstances for salvation. Whose existence was it essential to save ? And with whose help ? And how. Therefore, what could be a serious and correct resolution ? IN THESE CIRRUMSTANCES, ONE RESOLUTION ALONE WAS POSSIBLE, NAMELY ,TO CREATE. NEW TURKISH STATE, THE SOVEREIGNITY AND INDEPENDENCE OF WHICH WOULD BE UNRESERVEDLY RECOGNISED. This was the resolution we adopted before we left Istanbul and which we began to put into execution immediately after we set foot on Anatolia soil at Samsun. These were the most logical and most powerful arguments in support of his resolution. The main point was that, the Turkish nation should live in honour and dignity. Such a condition could only be attained by coplete independence . NO MATTER HOW WEALTHY AND PROSPEROUS A NATION IS , IF IT IS DEPRIVED OF ITS INDEPENDENCE IT NO LONGER IT NO LONGER DESERVES TO REGARDED OTHERWISW THAN AS A SLAVE IN THE EYES OF CIVILISED WORLD. To accept the protectorate of a foreign power is to admit lack of all human qualities, weakness and incipacity. Indeed, it is impossible to envisage people who have not been humilated willingiy accept a foreign master. BUT THE TURKISH BOTH DIGNIFIED AND PROUD; HE IS ALSO CAPABLE AND TALENTED. SUCH A NATION WOULD PREFER TO PERISH RATHER THAN SUBJECT IYSELF TI THE LIFE OF A SLAVE. THEREFORE, INDEPENDENCE OR DEATH ! This was the rallying cry of all those who honestly desired to save their country. Let us suppose for a moment that in trying to accomplish this we had failed. What would have been the result ? Slavery ! In that case, would not the consequence have been same if we had submitted to the other proposals ? Mustafa Kemal quoted in his speech following ; But with this difference, that a nation that defies death in its struggle for indepence, drives comfort from the thought that it had resolved to make every sacrifice compatible with human dignity. There is no doubt, whatever that in the eyes of both friend and foe throughout the world its position is more respected than would be that of a craven and degraded nation capable of surrendering itself to the yoke of slavery. Moreover, to labor for the maintenance of the Ottoman dynasty and its sovereign would have been to inflict the greatest harm upon the Turkish nation, for it is independence could have been secured at the price of every possible sacrifice, it could not have been regarded as secure so long as the Sultanate existed. How could it be deemed permissable that a crowd of madmen, united by neither a moral nor a spiritual bond to the country or the nation as a whole could still be trusted, to protect the independence and the dignity of the nation and State ? As for the Caliphate, it could only have been a laughing-stock in the eyes of the civilised world, enjoying the blessings of science. As a result Mustafa Kemal was telling that. As you see in order to carry out our resolution, questions had to be dealt with the nation had hitherto known practically nothing. It was imperative that questions which were considered dangerous to discuss publicly be discussed openly. We were compelled to rebel against the Ottoman Goverment against the Padişah, against the Caliph of all the Mohammedans, and we had to bring the whole nation and army into state of rebellion. Mustafa Kemal who landed to Samsun on 19 May 1919, arrives to havza on 25 May 1919 continuing to work till 12 June, same day passed to Amasya and on 21 June 1919 "Amasya circular"had been signed. But, the works Mustafa Kemal Pasha performing for nation and country deteeted by Istanbul and efforts not pleased Istanbul government and English forces. Mustafa Kemal Pasha arrived to Sivas on 27 June 1919 and welcomed with compassion and enthusiasm. Same time, Malatyagoverner Ali Galip who came to Sivas ordered Mustafa Kemal's arrest in accordance with the instructions recevied from Istanbul. But the majority of the meeters were the soldiers who fought at Arıburnu, Anafartalar, Çanakkale under wounded an than discharged, command of Mustafa Kemal. Was it possible to arrest Mustafa Kemal while he was amoungst these patriots?

1. Republicanism
2. Nationalism
3. Populism
4. State Control
5. Secularism
6. Progressivism
In contemporary terms, these can be classified as:
1. Individual freedom and national sovereignty
2. Accepting guidance of science and wisdom for all activities of state

Atatürk quoted this as " My Heritage"
It shouldn't be forgotten that the basis of all progressivism included in the Republic regime is the 'Principle of Secularism.' As usual there is no basis to talk about Republicanism amongst a society ruled by traditions as well as progressivism and secularism.
REPUBLICANISM
In western languages this term is used to define the rule of a nation by itself. The following two points are really important in Republican regimes.
a) The Rulers
b) The Ruled
The main point is that both of these groups must have honesty. In a republican regime, honesty is of crucial importance for both sides, and the relations of both sides with each other is very important. In this way, the republic will defend itself against interior and exterior dangers with tight measures limited with the principles of the republican regime. This frame must not be overrun. Otherwise a gap between the republic and the nation will occur. The biggest sufferer in this case will be the Republic itself. For this reason a republican regime has to be smart at all times. Freedom and its applications are limited with the rules of democracy in the countries that adopt this system. Nobody has unlimited rights in republics ruled by democracy. The regimes ruled with non-limited rights and laws cannot be classified as democracy or Republic. In democracy and democratic republican rights of the public and individual freedoms are limited with laws and their borders are marked with justice.
After all these explanations let's have a look at Atatürk's understandings of the Republic and State. The points that Atatürk mentioned about the republic about three quarters of a century ago are still the targets in some western countries. Atatürk was not only a well-informed soldier and a future-sighted statesman but also a real thinker. He not only generated ideas but also realized them showing the path of salvation and independence to Third World countries. Had he not placed his ideas on a scientific basis would they still remain contemporary after so many years? If the name of Atatürk circulates in many countries seeking liberty the reason must be searched for.
How did Atatürk prepare the infra-structure of the republic which was proclaimed on October 29, 1923?
The Republic should be based on secular principles. There was no room for Caliphate or its remains, and the new state of Republic should be protected by a just law system. The young generation of the republic would be trained by the broad-minded instructors who were aware of the value of independence and freedom but not by the dark-minded people expelled from the borders.
Everything remaining from empire era out of logic would be demolished and foundations of the republic would be based on positive sciences. Atatürk was aware of the fact that the republic could not proceed only by austerity measures, and the events that took place later confirmed how future-sighted Atatürk was. Atatürk, who pointed out that a population without knowledge and consciousness may not have the right to be a nation, calculated that a nation would possess rights and laws in a ratio based on the level of his consciousness.That is why he cherished culture and training, and defined that culture was the basic essential of a republic. according to Atatürk, it is not enough to protect a republic. It must be deserved! Education is the key element for this. The young generations given a contemporary education may calculate the value of this necessity. For this reason victories achieved by means of sword must be replaced with cultural victories.

NATIONALISM
Turkish people were changed to a nation from being a religious community by Atatürk. Atatürk's confidence in the Nation was unlimited. He defended the idea that every revolution would be achieved with the Nation but not despite the Nation. His belief was that every novelty would exist eternally only if it adapted by the Nation. He kept repeating that whoever identified himself as a "Turk" within the boundaries of the country represented the "Turkish Nation" and that the Nation would be called so.
SOVEREIGNITY WILL UNCONDITIONALLY BELONG TO THE NATION
No power, external or internal strength would be able to confiscate this from the hands of the Nation. The nation would be educated to sacrifice their lives when necessary.
POPULISM
Based on a society without class!
STATE CONTROL
This term was cleared by Ataturk as follows: "The state rule which we follow is based on individual diligence and efforts but at the same time on the subjects relevantly tied up to high and public advantages of the nation. Especially in economic fields practically state should be involved to overview economic measures. These two terms of Populism and State Control equals today's terminology of Social Justiceand State which are terms many of today's modern democracies are based on.
SECULARISM
The term defined as the seperation of religious affairs and state work is a non-reversible point of Turkish revolution and the requirements of being a democracy. After this brief definition, let's point out to Atatürk's ideas relevant to religion and science. His ideas about religion were not too different from a noble and sincere member of the religious organisation. He was never an opponent of religion. He believed that religion was necessary for the public but he was against the replacement of law, logic, mentality with religion. He was opposed to merchants of religion, fundamentalists and those who wanted to rule the public with superstitions. Religion was a holy concept to be kept in the one's conscience. Setting off with these ideas,
on January 31, 1923 he said the following:
"Our religion is a most natural and logical one and it is for this reason that it is the last of religions. In order for a religion to be natural it must co-exist with science, knowledge and logic. Our religion completely complies with these prerequisites. Above, we defined that secularity is the seperation of State and religious affairs but this does not mean that everybody can do everything about religion without the interference of the State. Moreover, State power may be used for any belief system. In this case the freedom of conscience will be obliterated for believers and non-believers."
Atatürk was aware of the very big problems to be eliminated in order to flee from being an undeveloped society. For him, every contemporary attempt had to include the principle of secularism. Sultanate, caliphate, sharia, religious education and capitulations had to be obliterated. The ideas people create relevant to themselves and their environment are partially in the form of BELİEF and partially KNOWLEDGE.
PROGRESSIVISM
According to Atatürk's idea of progressivism it is necessary to walk on a path illuminated with the light of science.


ATATURK's Address to the Youth
Turkish Youth!
Your first duty is to forever preserve and defend Turkish Independence and Turkish Republic.
This is the very foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malevolent people at home and abroad, who will wish to deprive you of this treasure. If some day you are compelled to defend your independence and your Republic, you will not think about the possibilities and circumstances of the situation you are in. These possibilities and circumstances may be extremely unfavorable. The enemies conspiring against your independence and your Republic may have behind them a victory unprecedented in the annals of the world. It may be that, by violence and ruse, all the fortresses of your beloved fatherland may have been captured, all its shipyards occupied, all its armies dispersed and every corner of the country invaded. And sadder and graver than all these circumstances, those who are in power within the country may be in error or misguide and they may even be traitors. Furthermore, they may identify personal interests with the political designs of the invaders. The country may be impoverished, ruined and exhausted .
Youth of Türkiye's future!
Even in such circumstances, it is your duty to save Turkish Independence and Republic.
You will find the strength you need in your noble blood.
Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Cevapla

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